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APPLICATION advice

Explore our do's and don't's of CV writing, stand out and find out how to reach your goals

A curriculum vitae (CV) is a summary of your achievements and skills and is sent to recruiters when applying for jobs, training places and, occasionally, courses of study.

There are no set rules about CV writing and the structure and format can vary significantly depending on the purpose. On this page, you'll find guidance on the structure and types of CVs to help you promote yourself to employers.

Remember, in most cases, your CV will give a recruiter their first impression of you. So read our guide to see our 'do's and don'ts' on CV writing, as well as example CVs for various sectors.

How to write your CV

Your CV must be very positive and make a strong case to the reader. It's a piece of personal marketing, your means of ‘selling yourself’, and needs to be more than just an account of what you have done.

Do

  • Target your CV to each role you apply for by matching your experience and skills to the requirements of the job
  • Make the first page your "power page" – get all the relevant information in this space
  • Make it easy to read and skim quickly, and keep to 2 sides of A4 paper (unless otherwise instructed) as an employer will see many CVs for an advertised role
  • Allocate more space to issues that matter – your skills, your work experience, your degree
  • Present your CV well – neat, clear, correct spelling and grammar
  • Pick the type of CV that works best for you and the job you are applying for
  • Make sure that your contact details are clear and accurately recorded on the CV – take extra care to avoid errors such as incorrect postcodes or wrongly noted mobile numbers as recruiters want to be able to contact applicants quickly and easily, and will only try so many times
  • Clearly state your contact details at the top of the CV – double-check to make sure you have made no mistakes.

Don't

  • Leave long gaps in your list of activities (such as work or education) – employers will wonder about significant periods of unexplained time
  • Send out the same CV every time you apply for a job – you need to target for a particular employer, job or industry
  • Provide irrelevant information, such as your date of birth, marital status or a full list of GCSE qualifications
  • Send out your CV with spelling or grammar errors – poor presentation equals poor impression and employers generally make swift judgements about CV presentation
  • Copy creative CV examples – it is important to use examples for ideas and inspiration to create a style that works for you, rather than copying other CVs

Plan your CV

Start by writing down what you've been doing, perhaps beginning with your degree. Then write down details of jobs, voluntary work, and external interests. Write as much detail as you can – rough notes will be fine to begin with.

This body of information will form an 'evidence bank' that you can use for any future CV or application. You can also complete a skills audit to help you add to your evidence bank.

Target your CV to the organisation or sector

Then target your CV. Refer to the job description and person specification of the role you're applying for to see what the employer requires and pick out the most important and relevant evidence. Some employers electronically scan CVs and applications to check for keywords, so you should use terminology that's relevant to the vacancy. A well-organised evidence bank will help you find any relevant evidence.

For example, if you're a History student seeking a graduate opportunity in retail, you need to write about any aspects of your course, work experience or part-time jobs, that show the skills demanded by retail employers. The focus of your CV should be what you're offering the employer with regards to the requirements of the job.

You should also spend time researching an employer to help target your CV.

Choose an appropriate CV type

There are different types of CV that work for different types of sectors or organisations. Take a look at the 5 below to find your best fit. You can write the same CV in different formats if you think different organisations would prefer different types.

A good CV is one that can be scanned quickly but will still let the reader pick up all of the main points and be impressed by what they see.

Types of CV

This is a very popular style that has been around for a very long time and employers are used to seeing this style. It's easy to put together and its main emphasis lies in promoting your skills and achievements to the reader through your recent activities (for example, your degree or a summer internship). It can be especially useful if your degree or work experience relates closely to jobs you're applying for.

The skills-based CV states on the first page the important technical and transferable or interpersonal skills you may have acquired and demonstrated in various contexts. It can be useful if you have a lot of work experience and is especially good if you want to draw attention to important skills. Create some skills headings on the first page and then choose a few examples of activities you have completed which demonstrate those skills.

An academic CV can be used if you're applying for a specialised role or a higher degree such as a doctorate. In this style, you'll need to include more about the research you've completed, conferences attended, special skills you've acquired (for example, in specific software) academic prizes, any papers you may have written (or to which you have contributed) and poster presentations.

The degree you're studying is unlikely to be relevant for part-time opportunities you're applying for. Therefore, it will be useful to focus on the skills you're developing through studying in general and any skills developed from previous experience.

To ensure your CV is targeting the job, it will be helpful to identify the skills the employer is looking for. Part-time vacancies may not always have a full job description, so you may need to find a generic job description for that kind of role. It can also be helpful to include your availability in your profile, especially if the employer has specified shift requirements.

Read our guide on finding part-time work.

If you've studied an art and design subject and are applying for a creative post, you may want to produce a CV that demonstrates your creativity. We suggest you look at examples of creative CVs. These include examples of creative styles in various industries such as graphic design, architecture, illustration, photography and fashion design.

Creative CVs can have examples of your own images in the body of the CV and can distinguish your creative talent from those of competitors. Any images used must be your own, and don't use so many that the text is crowded out. The CV shouldn't look too busy, and all images should contribute to the overall CV.

You don't always have to produce a creative CV for a creative job. If you can reference an online presence (a blog or website) that an employer can visit to view examples of your work, this could be enough and a non-creative format CV can be used.

Write your CV

Start your CV with a brief profile or objective – just a few lines, highlighting key information that will be of interest to the employer or recruiter. Think of it as a newspaper headline or a ‘sound bite,’ designed to capture interest at the start. Remember, this will be the first item on your CV to be seen by the recruiter.

When writing the main body of your CV, keep in mind the following points:

  • When recording events, write them in reverse chronological order, with the most recent first
  • Make sure your most impressive details are on the first page – this could be your skills, work experience, degree and other achievements
  • Use clear sections with headings and maybe sub-headings, that can be easily followed
  • It's favourable to write in the first person – but avoiding pronouns such as ‘I’, ‘me’, ‘my’, ‘we’, ‘us’ etc
  • Use short phrases and avoid large blocks of text – bullet points might help
  • Use bold to denote new sections rather than underlining
  • Avoid italics and font types that may be difficult to read – fonts like Arial or Verdana (11 or 12pt) are good
  • Allocate more space to important items – your degree perhaps, or a relevant placement
  • Avoid using tables, graphs and charts unless they are important or have been specifically asked for – they can be difficult to manipulate and take up too much space
  • There's usually no need to include photographs in your CV

Use action verbs

Try to include action verbs that convey a positive attitude and make employers take notice. Show an employer what you can do and highlight your achievements. Try using an action verb as a leading word to your sentence/bullet points to make your writing more direct.

Here are some examples of phrases you might find on a CV, using action verbs:

"Responsibility for interpreting company guidelines on health and safety; this provided opportunities to gain experience in problem solving, drafting advice, communicating information and negotiating with department managers."

"Summer placement included work on coordinating marketing campaigns and adapting web content to increase sales."

Disability disclosure

It's natural to be concerned about telling an employer about a disability when completing applications, writing a CV or going for interviews. It's important to adopt a positive approach and seek help when necessary.

If you require any assistance with this, or other matters related to disability, then please contact staff at the Careers and Employability Service.

When applying for opportunities, preparation is always extremely important. This is especially so when considering beforehand whether and how to disclose a disability. Remember, the provisions of equality legislation can protect people with disabilities.

Examples of CVs

Selecting the right CV to highlight your experiences and skills is very important. Below is a list of example CVs to help you consider different ways in which CVs can be structured and styled.

If your job area is not detailed below, you should still explore the CV examples to find out which CV type and style would be most effective for you.

Please note: the CV examples are intended only as a guide and, although they have been titled with job areas, you should adapt your CV to suit your circumstances and tailor it to the requirements of the job.

Examples of creative CVs

Creative CVs can showcase your creativity and talents, more than you'd have a chance to in other sectors.

Here are examples of creative CVs:

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